Therefore, A2 milk is currently marketed as a healthier choice than regular milk. A1 is claimed to have several health benefits and is easier to digest for lactose intolerant individuals (IvanoDe & Stefano, 2010; Boutrou et al., 2013; Healthline, 2015). Sharma R., Rajput Y.S., Barui A.K., & N., L.N. Detection of adulterants in milk, A laboratory manual. In: N. D. R. Institute (ed.)). Karnal-132001, Haryana, India.

2012. Ellis DI, Brewster VL, Dunn WB, Allwood JW, Golovanov AP, Goodacre R. Food fingerprinting: current technologies for detecting adulteration and contamination of food. 2012;41(17):5706–27. The production of different types of milk is a crucial factor in increasing the farmer`s profit margin through income from various sources. The type of milk depends on the breed of cow from which it comes. Dairy cow`s milk in the world is classified into A1 and A2 milk types based on the type of protein in their milk. Thus, the dairy farmer can maximize his income by labeling whole milk as A1 and A2 milk. Chang E, Arora I.

Simultane, Rapid Analysis of Melamine, Cyanuric Acid and Related Compounds in Milk and Infant Formula by LC/MS/MS. 2008. (pp. 1-4): www.ingenieria-analitica.com/downloads/dl/file/id/2737/product/110/simultaneous_fast_analysis_of_melamine_cyanuric_acid_and_related_compounds_in_milk_and_infant_formula_by_lc_ms_ms.pdf. Milk is also used to make several other products such as cream, butter, cottage cheese/yogurt, ghee, kefir and cheese which are consumed worldwide. Despite the many applications, milk adulteration is unfortunately a common practice. Table sugar is added to milk to increase the carbohydrate content of milk, and thus the density (solid and non-fat) of milk is increased and milk is made thicker. In general, it increases the lactometric value of milk that has already been diluted with water (Sharma et al., 2012a; Kamthania et al., 2014; Arvind et al., 2012). The test for detecting starch in milk uses an iodine solution, the addition of which turns the milk solution into a blue-black color due to the formation of a starch-iodine complex. Measure 3 ml of milk in a test tube. The test tube is then stored for incubation in a boiling water bath for 5 minutes. Then the milk is cooled to room temperature and added with 2-3 drops of 1% iodine solution.

The appearance of a blue-black colour indicates that milk is adulterated with starch (Sharma et al., 2012a). According to the FSSAI, food adulteration (adulteration of milk) is defined as “the addition or subtraction of a substance to or from a food so that the natural composition and quality of the food substance is affected” (1). One. Rosalic acid test to detect carbonate and bicarbonate in milk Take 5 ml of milk in a test tube and add 5 ml of 95% ethanol, followed by 4-5 drops of rosalic acid. If the color of the milk turns pink, it is concluded that the milk is adulterated with sodium carbonate / sodium bicarbonate and therefore unfit for human consumption. Kumar A, Lal D, Seth R, Sharma R. Recent trends in the detection of adulteration in milk fat a review. Indian J Dairy Sci. 2002;55:319–30. Tailford KA, Berry CL, Thomas AC, Campbell JH. (2003): A variant of casein in cow`s milk is atherogenic Atherosclerosis.

2003; 170:13-19. [PubMed] Chen, X. Gao C, Li H, Huang L, Sun Q, Dong Y, Tian C, Gao S, Dong H, Guan D, Hu X, Zhao S, Li L, Zhu L, Yan Q, Zhang J, Zen K, Zhang CY (2010): Identification and characterization of microRNAs in raw milk during different lactation periods, commercial liquid products and milk powder. doi:10.1038/cr.2010.80 (2010). Cheng Y, Dong Y, Wu J, Yang X, Bai H, Zheng H. Screening melamine adulterants in milk powder using laser Raman spectrometry. J Food Composite Anal 2010;23(2):199-202. Xin H, Stone R. Spoiled milk scandal. The Chinese probe exposes high-tech adulteration with melamine.

Science. 2008;322:1310–1. Recio I, Perez-Rodrlguez ML, Ramos M, Amigo L. Capillary electrophoretic analysis of genetic variants of milk proteins of different species. J Chromatogr A. 1997;768:47–56. Siciliano RA, Rega B, Amoresano A, Pucci P. Modern methods of mass spectrometry to monitor milk quality. 2000;72:408–15. Take 5 ml of milk from a test tube and add 0,1 ml of bromocresol-purple solution. The appearance of purple color indicates the presence of detergents in milk. Pure milk samples show a slight purple colour (Singhal, 1980); (Arvind et al., 2012).

Trivedi UB, Lakshminarayana D, Kothari IL, Patel NG, Kapse HN, Makhija KK, Patel PB, Panchal CJ. Potentiometric biosensor for the determination of urea in milk. Sensors and actuators B: Chemicals. 2009;140:260–6. Dawson DP, Morrill JL, Reddy PG, Minocha HC, Ramsey HA. Soy protein concentrate and heated soybean meal as protein sources in calf milk substitutes. J Dairy Sci. 1988;71:1301–9. Various mutations in the bovine beta-casein gene have led to 12 genetic variants, of which A1 and A2 are the most common. The A1 and A2 variants of beta-casein differ at an amino acid position. Thus, milk with the A1 variant of β casein is called A1 milk and the other with A2 β casein as A2 milk. Elliott RB, Harris D P, Hill JP, Bibby NJ, Wasmuth HE.

(1999): Type I diabetes mellitus (insulin-dependent) and cow`s milk: consumption of casein variants. Diabetology. 1999;42:292-6. [PubMed] Dias LA, Peres AM, Veloso ACA, Reis FS, Vilas-Boas M, Machado AASC. An electronic assessment of tongue taste: identification of adulteration of goat`s milk with beef milk. B-sense actuators: Chem. 2009;136(1):209–17. The growing choice of value-added products through processing and/or labelling (A1 or A2) will also maximise the profit of stakeholders. Such techniques can create better market access by providing different products to meet consumer needs. However, information gaps limit the use of techniques. Therefore, options should be identified for the introduction of a simple technique that will help diversify the income of milk already produced and minimize milk adulteration. Melamine is added to milk not only as an adulterant, but also in many other foods such as branded yogurt, canned coffee, wheat gluten, chicken feed and (Ingelfinger, 2008; Lin et al., 2008).

All of these products were most likely made with ingredients from melamine-contaminated milk (PerkinElmer, 2013). It is also found in processed foods of animal origin. In 2007, melamine was found in wheat gluten and rice protein concentrate, which was exported from China and used in the manufacture of pet food in the United States. This has resulted in the death of a large number of dogs and cats due to renal failure (Cheng et al., 2010; PerkinElmer, 2013; Maryam, 2017). Milk adulteration is significantly worse in developing and underdeveloped countries due to the lack of adequate monitoring and enforcement (Xin and Stone, 2008). However, it is one of the most common phenomena that has been neglected in many countries (Tanzina and Shoeb, 2016). Therefore, this article examines the current possibilities of milk adulteration, the associated public health risks, and the technological options available to control milk quality through different detection methods. However, this type of machine does not recognize melamine. The melamine content of milk is determined by other portable sensors. The detection of melamine in milk has become extremely simple, fast and inexpensive. The detector was developed by researchers at the Indian Institute of Science (IISc) in Bangalore.

The sensor has a very sensitive sensitivity because it can detect melamine in raw milk even at low concentrations of 0.5 ppm. Scholl PF, Farris SM, Mossoba MM. Rapid turbidimetric detection of adulteration of milk powder with vegetable proteins. J Agric Food Chem. 2014;62:1498–505. Xinhua Dai XF, Fuhai S, Yang M, Li H, Zhou J, Xu R. Accurate analysis of urea in milk and milk powder by isotopic dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr B. 2010;878:1634–8.

López-Calleja I, González I, Fajardo V, Rodríguez MA, Hernández PE, García T, Matín R. Rapid detection of cow`s milk in sheep`s and goat`s milk by a species-specific polymerase chain reaction technique. 2004;87:2839–45. Detergents are added to emulsify the oil and dissolve it in water, creating a foamy solution that matches the desired properties of milk (Singuluri & Sukumaran, 2014) and therefore contains thick milk. The addition of such chemicals causes health problems, especially those related to the stomach and kidneys. Veyrand B, Durand S, Machand P, Antignac J-P, Bizec BL, Hancock P. Analysis of melamine and its deformation products in milk-based products using GC-MS/MS. Manchester: Waters Corporation; 2009. Embrapa (2014): Estatísticas de produção de leite (Milk Production Statistics).

Brasilia: Brazilian Association of Agricultural Research. Available in. Accessed June 2014 Milk is an important part of everyone`s diet, as it is rich in essential amino acids, which are most likely to lack plant-based protein diets.

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